The history of the United States has been a test, for more than 236 years, of democracy. The issues of concern and concerns that were faced in the first years continue to be addressed and resolved today: strong government versus weak government, individual rights versus group rights, free market versus trade and regulated employment, and the support to other countries against isolationism. The expectations of American democracy have always been great, although the reality, at times, has disappointed. Despite the failures, the nation has grown and flourished, during a recurrent process of adjustments and concessions.
United States History: Ancient History
During the most recent Ice Age, which occurred about 35,000 years ago, much of the world’s water was frozen in large ice sheets. A land bridge, estimated to be about 1,500 kilometers (932 miles), then connected Asia with North America. If we advance to about 12,000 years, we find evidence that humans existed in the region that is now the United States, as well as in other parts of North and South America.
The first settlers of what is now the United States would have arrived by that land bridge from Asia. Historians believe that they lived in the part of North America that today is Alaska for thousands of years. Eventually they moved south into the present continental United States and settled along the Pacific Ocean in the northwest, in the mountains and deserts of the southwest, and along the Mississippi River in the Midwest.
These first groups of settlers, known as the hohokam, adenanos, hopewelianos and anasazi, built primitive villages and began to cultivate the land. Their lives were connected to the earth, and family and community were of great importance to them. The researchers believe that they were based on the story as a way to share information, as well as in pictorial writing known as hieroglyphics. Native Americans valued nature as a spiritual force, exchanged food and other necessary goods with other tribes, and created huge piles of land in the form of snakes, birds and pyramids. They also fought regularly, largely due to land disputes. Historians are not sure why these early humans disappeared, but they were replaced by other Native American tribes, the Zuni, Hopi, etc., who prospered for hundreds of years. When the first Europeans arrived in what is now the United States, approximately two million people lived in the region.
United States History: The European Exploration of America and 4th of July images 2018
According to historians, the first Europeans to reach the “New World” were the Nordics. They sailed from Greenland, where Erik Ericson (Erik the Red) had established a settlement in 985. In 1001, Ericson’s son, Leif Ericson, explored the northeast coast of what is now Canada. It was there, in Newfoundland, Canada, where archaeologists have found traces of Scandinavian explorations.
It would be almost 500 years until other Europeans arrived in North America, and another 100 years more until permanent settlements were built. The first explorers did not go in search of America, they did not even know of its existence. Initially they sailed in search of maritime trade routes between Europe and Asia. Even Christopher Columbus, who is credited with the discovery of America, never reached what is now the continental United States. Colón, an Italian whose trip was paid by the Spanish queen Isabel la Catholic, only reached some of the Caribbean islands in 1492. When the Europeans finally arrived in America – mostly from Spain and Portugal, but also from France,
In 1497, an English explorer by the name of John Cabot arrived on the east coast of Canada, and established British law on the land of North America. During the 16th century, Spain sponsored several explorations of the New World, claiming more land in America than any other country did. In 1513, Juan Ponce de León landed in Florida. Several years later, Hernando De Soto also landed in Florida and explored to the Mississippi River and to the northeast. Spain conquered Mexico in 1522, and in 1540, a Spanish explorer named Francisco Vázquez de Coronado traveled north, to the Grand Canyon in Arizona and to the Great Plains, in search of the mythical Seven Cities of Cibola. Other Europeans, including Giovanni da Verrazano, Jacques Cartier, and Américo Vespucio (the latter is for whom the two American continents were named), they explored further north. The first European settlement in North America was Spanish, founded in what is now San Agustin in Florida know about that from http://independenceusa.net/. Later, thirteen British colonies were established to the north, marking the beginning of the formation of the United States of America.
History of the United States: The Colonial Period
Statue of Liberty Most people who came to the British colonies in the seventeenth century were of English descent. Others came from the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, France, Scotland and the North Island. Some arrived to avoid religious or political persecution in their country of origin, while others went in search of economic opportunities. Some had to work as servants to pay the cost of their trip before gaining freedom, and others, like black Africans, were taken as slaves. By 1690, 250,000 people had settled in the United States, a figure that would rise to 2.5 million a century later, in 1790.
With time, the 13 colonies that formed America were constituted within three different regions. Most of the initial settlements were founded along the Atlantic Coast and the rivers that flow into the ocean. The first of these regions was the Northeast, where trees that could be used for wood covered the hills, and hydraulic power was widely available. This region, which would take the name of New England, was composed of the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island. There the economy was based on wood, fishing, shipbuilding, and in different businesses.
The second region is known as the Central Colonies which consisted of the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland. There, largely due to the proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, the climate was milder and the field more varied which allowed success in industry and agriculture. The society in the Central Colonies was more diverse and sophisticated than that of the other two regions. The people who settled in New York, for example, came from all over Europe; many were families of great wealth.
The third colonial region was known as the Southern Colonies, which included the states of Virginia, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Due to the temperate climate of this region of the New World, the growing season was long and the land fertile. Most of those who settled here were farmers, humble farmers who usually worked their small farms themselves. The rich landowners, however, had large plantations in which products such as cotton and tobacco are grown for trade. Many of these owners used slaves to work in the fields who were compensated with food and lodging.
The relationships that were forged between the settlers and the Native Americans (also called Indians) were some good and others harmful. In some regions of the country, products were exchanged and, for the most part, on friendly terms. In most cases, however, especially as the settlements continued to grow, the Native Americans were forced by force to leave the colonial regions, and most of them went east on the other side of the Mississippi River.
As settlements grew, governments were established in each of the original 13 colonies – governments based on the British system that involved citizen participation. While in Britain, the “Glorious Revolution of 1688 to 1689” limited the king’s powers and gave more authority to the citizens. On the other hand, the colonists of America who began to observe these changes, created colonial assemblies that claimed the right to act as local parliaments. These governing bodies passed laws that limited the authority of the royal governor (a representative of the British monarchy) and increased their own authority. For several years the great differences between the royal governors and the assemblies continued, since the settlers began to realize that their interests were often different from those of the British government. Initially, the settlers fought for self-government within a British Commonwealth, but the resistance of the British government finally provoked a demand for total independence.